Research Department
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Research is an integral component of the mission of the Department of Anesthesiology at Loma Linda. We have a very active Research Division, which gives residents both basic science and clinical research options.

Residents desiring basic science research have opportunities for extended research time in NIH-funded laboratories investigating. Many opportunities for neuroscience research are available in the Zhang Neuroscience Laboratory, which is housed in the Anesthesiology Department to allow close collaboration in exciting projects that share a focus on near-term translation potential. The Zhang lab has NIH P01 program grant funding to study hemorrhagic stroke, and many R01 grants for studies of methods to improve outcome following ischemic stroke, global cerebral ischemia including hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal hypoxia, surgical brain injury (edema and bleeding) and cardiac arrest. Collaboration with the LLU Center for Perinatal Biology allows participation in studies of vascular reactivity and nitric oxide effects. Department faculty members collaborate with researchers on campus who study coagulation disorders.

Residents whose interest is in clinical research also have opportunites for research. Our Faculty members have numerous active research projects, with ongoing projects in Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, Pediatric Anesthesia, Neuroanesthesia, Obstetric Anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia, Pain Medicine and Clinical Monitoring areas.

Research rotations are arranged for the CA-III year. Residents with an interest in research meet with the department research director and research coordinator during the CA-II year. Residents may participate in an existing project, but are also encouraged to develop a hypothesis and participate in study design. This latter approach has the advantage of exposure to the complete research process, including Institutional Review Board approval. The department supports residents wishing to get an early start on research projects beginning in their CA-I year, so some of our residents begin work on research projects before the end of their CA-1 year.

Each year the Department of Anesthesiology is represented at conferences across the nation including but not limited to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, the International Anesthesia Research Society, subspecialty conferences such as SPA, SCA and SOAP and the Western Anesthesia Residents Conference (WARC).

Resident Awards for Research
1st Place - WARC -Poster Presentation - Mary Yurashevich, MD - Isoflurane Reduces Cerebrovascular Depression Induced by Sinusoidal Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in the Rat Model of Vasovagal Syncope

1st Place - WARC -Poster Presentation - Brody Dreger, MD - Airway management for grade 3 subglottic stenosis and preeclampsia undergoing c-section
2nd Place - WARC - Hypothesis Based Research - Jacob Uhler, MD - Analgesic Effectiveness of Acetaminophen for Primary Cleft Palate Repair in Young Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

1st Place - WARC - Oral Presentation - Tiffany Hadley, MD: Anti-neutrophil antibody enhances the neuroprotective effects of G-CSF by decreasing neutrophil mobilization in hypoxic ischemic neonatal rat model.
3rd Place - WARC - Oral Presentation - Ronak Raval: Decreased surgical bleeding in Sprague Dawley rats pretreated with Crotalus atrox venom.


1st Place - WARC - Oral Presentation

1st Place - Case Report Poster - WARC
1st Place - Basic Science Poster - WARC
2nd Place - CSA Oral Presentation - WARC

1st Place - WARC
1st Place - Annual Postgraduate Conference, LLUMC

3rd Place - WARC

1st Place - WARC

1st Place - WARC

Current Projects
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Basic Sciences
  • Surgical brain injury in rats pretreated with snake venoms
  • Identification of snake venom component responsible for decreased neurosurgical bleeding
  • Neurosurgical brain injury – outcome impacts of various therapeutic agents
  • Neurovascular protection from H2 following cardiac arrest
  • Remote ischemic pre-conditioning for vasovagal syncope

Clinical Sciences
  • Adverse events before and after the implementation of a multimodal peri-operative pain control regimen for total knee arthroplasty.
  • Postoperative pain management using combined intrathecal/epidural analgesia for posterior spinal fusion in pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis
  • A prospective study to evaluate the performance of combined monitoring of pulse oximetry, continuous acoustic respiratory rate, and processed EEG in patients undergoing procedural sedation.
  • Adductor canal nerve block following total knee arthropolasty: A randomized prospective study.
  • Comparison of pulse hemoglobin and pleth variability index to standard methods of guiding intraoperative fluid and transfusion management during major surgical procedures.
  • Pulse oximetry based hemoglobin determination in adult and pediatric surgical and intensive care patients.
  • Stroke volume variations from radial artery during surgery in patients with end stage renal disease as a marker of fluid responsiveness.
  • Comparison of tranexamic acid to epsilon aminocaproic acid: a prospective analysis of blood conservation in cardiac surgery.
  • Impact of web-based video interviews on the anesthesiology resident selection process: a pilot study
  • A comparison of oral premedication agents in children.
  • A comparison of videolaryngoscopes for endotracheal intubation in children younger than two years of age.
  • The effect of packed red blood cell transfusion on pulmonary and gastrointestinal hemodynamics in newborn infants.
  • Acceptable pediatric preoperative potassium levels for non-emergent cases.
  • The role of systemic illness on pain thresholds in children undergoing appendectomy.

Recent Publications

The Director of Anesthesia Research is Richard Applegate II, MD.